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Source: Frsecure

Hello Everyone, This is Ayush if you haven’t read the previous blog then please read it by clicking on above link in which we have discussed important concepts which is necessary for further blogs.

Till now from Day 3 to Day 12 we only talked about networking concepts and some security controls , now from today onwards we are gonna learn about penetration testing concepts, so today we’ll start with introduction of penetration testing. So, let’s start.

What is Penetration Testing ?

Penetration Testing is the process of finding vulnerabilities or weakness in the web application or the computer system with permission of owner or in other words we can say , finding vulnerabilities ethically not unethically. It basically means we should have prior permission of resource person to test any web application or system.

In penetration testing , same tools and techniques are used by both, who wants to do testing for malicious purpose and who wants to secure it.

Before a penetration test starts, a formal discussion occurs between the penetration tester and the system owner. Various tools, techniques, and systems to be tested are agreed on. This discussion forms the scope of the penetration testing agreement and will determine the duration the penetration test takes.

Before testing pentester is provided with a scope lists or you can say they are provided with some domain names or IP addresses and pentester have to test only those particular domains or IPs.

Now we’ll discuss the types of hackers:

Types of Hackers:

White Hat: These are the good hackers who do any activity with prior permission, just like a penetration tester.

Grey Hat: These are the combination of good and bad hackers.

Black Hat: These are the bad hackers or criminals like those who leaks user’s information, perform any test on any website without any permission , try to damage organisation. For example — ransomware authors who infects devices with malicious code.

Here is the difference between three:

Source: cyberquote.com

Now we’ll talk about two types of testing methods or techniques:

Types of Testing Methods

source: tryhackme

White Box Testing: In this type of testing, tester known about the internal architecture of the system or web application also he has access of databases, codes and other some secret paths in web application.

Black Box Testing: In this type of testing, tester doesn’t know about any internal structure of the system or web application, they are just provided with one or two domain names and after that tester do testing on it.

In above two black box testing is more beneficial because here tester thinks like a hacker while testing the website , but in case of white box, they will test for only those area which is known to that tester.

Here is the key differences between white box and black box testing:

sourceL pediaa.com

Now we’ll talk about different pentesting methodologies:

Pentesting Methodologies

Before discussing methodologies, all those methodologies follow these 5 phases of penetration testing:

Phases of Penetration Testing:-

source: securtraid

After agreement and plan these are the below steps which are performed:

Information Gathering — Information gathering is the first phase of penetration testing in which we gather all the publicly available information about our target or organization.Scanning — Scanning is the second phase of penetration testing in which we scan the system and try to find the technical information about the system like what technologies are being used by the target , which servers are being used, what ports are open n all or which services are vulnerable.Exploitation — Exploitation is the third phase of penetration testing in which we exploit the system by using vulnerability which we find in scanning phase.Maintaining Access: This is the fourth phase of penetration testing we try to maintain our access which we got in previous step by installing backdoors[means code which will help to get access of system anytime hacker wants] in the system , or you can say to check whether any criminal can do like that or not.Analysis: This is the last phase of penetration testing in which detailed report is sent to the developer to patch/fix the vulnerabilities whatever tester finds.

Now let’s talk about methodologies which are followed by the penetration testers.

There are many testing methodologies for different system and applications. But we’ll basically talk about related to web application methodology , so let’s see

OWASP: OWASP stands for Open Web Application Project is a framework which is used to test the web applications and services.

It covers all stages of an engagement: from testing to reporting and remediation.

OWASP also releases top 10 vulnerabilities at every 4 year, and many security researchers follow owasp testing guidelines or methodolgy and perform testing on that top 10 vulnerabilities.

Here is the list of top 10 vulnerabilities of OWASP:

OWASP Top Ten

You can also website owap website by clicking on above link.

We’ll mainly focus on these top 10 vulnerabilities and in our next blog we’ll do setup for testing and see some labs then further we’ll learn about some information gathering techniques and web vulnerabilities then we’ll talk about network related vulnerabilities and so on .

So today we’ll stop here , I hope you got the basic idea of What Penetration Testing is. If yes then well and good , if no if read it again or do some hard work by searching on google about it :).

So , Thank you for reading guys , will meet in next one !

Happy Learning and Happy Hacking !

Day 13, Introduction to Pentesting #100DaysofHacking was originally published in InfoSec Write-ups on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.